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Class Reptilia
Order Squamata
Suborder Sauria
Family Phrynosomatidae

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Callisaurus draconoides—Zebratail Lizard // Cophosaurus texanus—Greater Earless Lizard // Holbrookia maculata—Lesser Earless Lizard // Phrynosoma—Horned Lizards // Sceloporus—Spiny Lizards // Urosaurus ornatus—Tree Lizard // Uta stansburiana—Side-blotched Lizard

Phrynosomatidae—Spiny Lizards

Synonyms. Iguanidae. The Iguanidae has been split into a number of families in recent years, of which the Phrynosomatidae is one of the larger.

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Callisaurus sp.—Zebratail LizardsRegional Pleistocene distribution of Callisaurus sp.

Sites.

Late Blancan/Irvingtonian: Vallecito Creek, Anza-Borrego Desert (Cassiliano 1999).

Literature. Cassiliano 1999.

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Callisaurus draconoides Blainville 1835—Zebratail LizardRegional Pleistocene distribution of Callisaurus draconoides

This is an inhabitant of the western portion of our region, with its eastern boundary barely entering into extreme southwestern New Mexico. It generally occurs in rather open desertscrub habitats (Mead et al. 1984).

Sites.

Sangamon: La Brisca (Van Devender et al. 1985: cf. gen. et sp.).

Late Wisconsin/Holocene: Deadman Cave (Mead et al. 1984).

Literature. Mead et al. 1984; Van Devender et al. 1985.

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Cophosaurus texanus Troschel 1852—Greater Earless LizardRegional Pleistocene distribution of Cophosaurus texanus

This lizard currently occupies southern and, at lower elevations, central New Mexico. Van Devender and Worthington (1977) described it as occupying rocky habitats in desertscrub and in grasslands at relatively low elevations. This being the case, it seems likely that the Wisconsin/Holocene records are of Holocene age.

Carl S. Lieb photo: Cophosaurus texanusThe Dry Cave (Lost Valley) identification is highly suspect.

Fig. 1. Cophosaurus texanus. Photograph by Carl S. Lieb.

Sites.

Early/Early-Mid Wisconsin: Lost Valley (? gen. et sp.) (Harris 1993c).

Late Wisconsin/Holocene: Deadman Cave (Mead et al. 1984); Howell's Ridge Cave (Van Devender and Worthington 1977).

Literature. Harris 1993c; Mead et al. 1984; Van Devender and Worthington 1977.

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Holbrookia maculata Girard 1851—Lesser Earless LizardRegional Pleistocene distribution of Holbrookia maculata

This lizard is widespread in Mexico, Arizona, New Mexico, and the Great Plains north to South Dakota. According to Van Devender and Worthington (1977:93), this "is a grassland and woodland species that may occasionally occur in desert areas."

Holbrookia maculata. Photo by Carl S. Lieb.Applegarth (1979) suggested that level, sandy, open areas were favored. He also noted that presence in the older "F" grid of Animal Fair and absence at the full glacial "A" end of the excavation area probably meant absence from the Dry Cave area during the colder parts of the Wisconsin; however, he went on to note that occurrence in other sites in the area that were generally indicative of warmer conditions suggested that the upper elevational limits were near Eddy County during the Wisconsin, while today Eddy County is near the lower elevational limits.

Fig. 1. Holbrookia maculata. Photograph courtesy of Carl S. Lieb.

Sites.

Mid/Late Wisconsin: Animal Fair, F2 L5 (Applegarth 1979); Dark Canyon Cave (Applegarth 1979).

Late Wisconsin/Holocene: Deadman Cave (Mead et al. 1984); Howell's Ridge Cave (Van Devender and Worthington 1977).

Literature. Applegarth 1979; Mead et al. 1984; Van Devender and Worthington 1977.

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Last Update: 26 Mar 2014