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Class Aves
Order Gruiformes
Family Rallidae

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Fulica—Coots // Gallinula sp.—Moorhens // Gallinula chloropus—Common Moorhen // Porzana carolina—Sora // Porphyrio martinicus—Purple Gallinule // Rallus sp.—Rails // Rallus limicola—Virginia Rail

Rallidae—Rails

The general requirement of emergent aquatic vegetation for cover limits the areas suitable for these birds to river valleys, ponds, lakes, and any other area of permanent water with suitable plants. Regional forms migrate, which may increase the places where they may be found.

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Fulica sp.—American CootsPleistocene regional distribution of Fulica sp.

Sites.

Rancholabrean: Wilmington Blvd. and San Pedro Road (Jefferson 1991a).

Rancholabrean/?Early Holocene: Mitchell Caverns (Jefferson 1991a).

Late Wisconsin: China Lake (Jefferson 1991a); U-Bar Cave 18-20 ka (Harris 1989: ?).

Literature. Jefferson 1991a.

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Fulica americana Gmelin 1789—American CootPleistocene regional distribution of Fulica americana

Synonyms. Fulica hesterna.

NBII photo by John J. Mosesso of American CootsCoots are virtually ubiquitous in our area where proper aquatic conditions are found.

Fig. 1. American Coots, Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico. Photograph by John J. Mosesso, courtesy of the National Biological Information Infrastructure.

Sites.

Late Blancan/Irvingtonian: Vallecito Creek, Anza-Borrego Desert (Howard 1963).

?Late Irvingtonian/Rancholabrean: Emery Borrow Pit (Jefferson 1991a).

Irvingtonian/Rancholabrean: Manix Lake (Jefferson 1991a).

Rancholabrean: Salt Springs (Jefferson 1991a: cf.).

Sangamon: San Pedro Lumber Co. (Jefferson 1991a).

Wisconsin: Costeau Pit (Jefferson 1991a); Zuma Creek (Jefferson 1991a).

Early/Early-Mid Wisconsin: Rm Vanishing Floor (Harris 1993c).

Mid Wisconsin: McKittrick (Jefferson 1991a); Térapa (Steadman and Mead 2010: cf.).

Mid/Late Wisconsin: Rancho La Brea (Stock and Harris 1992); Sandblast Cave (Emslie 1988).

Mid/Late Wisconsin/Holocene: Jimenez Cave (Messing 1986); Sierra Diablo Cave (UTEP).

Mid Wisconsin-Holocene: Shelter Cave (Howard and Miller 1933).

Late Wisconsin: Charlies Parlor (Harris 1989); Maricopa (Jefferson 1991a);.

Late Wisconsin/Holocene: Kokoweef Cave (Reynolds, Reynolds, et al. 1991); Newberry Cave (Jefferson 1991a); Pendejo Cave (Harris 2003); Schuiling Cave (Jefferson 1991a); Tule Springs (Mawby 1967); Stanton's Cave (Rea and Hargrave 1984).

Literature. Emslie 1988; Harris 1989, 1993c, 2003; Howard 1963; Howard and Miller 1933; Jefferson 1991a; Messing 1986; Rea and Hargrave 1984; Reynolds, Reynolds, et al. 1991; Steadman and Mead 2010; Stock and Harris 1992; Mawby 1967.

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Gallinula sp.—Common MoorhensRegional Pleistocene distribution of Gallinula sp.

Sites.

?Late Irvingtonian/Rancholabrean: Emery Borrow Pit (Jefferson 1991a).

Literature. Jefferson 1991a.

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Gallinula chloropus (Linnaeus 1758)—Common MoorhenRegional Pleistocene distribution of Gallinula chloropus

Sites.

Mid Wisconsin: Térapa (Steadman and Mead 2010).

Late Wisconsin/Holocene: Stanton's Cave (Rea and Hargrave 1984).

Literature. Rea and Hargrave 1984; Steadman and Mead 2010.

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Porzana carolina (Linnaeus 1758)—SoraPleistocene regional distribution of Porzana carolina

Porzana carolinaThe Sora is associated with marsh habitats at all elevations in the region, though most common historically in the major river valleys (Ligon 1961)

Fig. 1. Sora. Illustration after Coues (1903).

Sites.

Mid Wisconsin: Térapa (Steadman and Mead 2010).

Mid/Late Wisconsin: Sandblast Cave (Emslie 1988: cf. gen. et sp.).

Mid Wisconsin-Holocene: Shelter Cave (Howard and Miller 1933).

Literature. Emslie 1988; Howard and Miller 1933; Ligon 1961; Steadman and Mead 2010.

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Porphyrio martinicus Linnaeus 1766—American Purple GallinulePleistocene regional distribution of Porphyrio matrinicus

Sites.

Mid Wisconsin: Térapa (Steadman and Mead 2010).

Literature. Steadman and Mead 2010.

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Rallus sp.—RailsPleistocene regional distribution of Rallus sp.

Sites.

Early Irvingtonian: Gypsum Ridge (Wagner and Prothero 2001).

?Late Irvingtonian/Rancholabrean: Emery Borrow Pit (Jefferson 1991a).

Literature. Wagner and Prothero 2001; Jefferson 1991a.

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Rallus limicola Vieillot 1819—Virginia RailPleistocene regional distribution of Rallus limicola

Sites.

Wisconsin: Carpinteria (Guthrie 2009).

Mid Wisconsin: McKittrick (Jefferson 1991a).

Sites.

Guthrie 2009; Jefferson 1991a.

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Last Update: 27 May 2014