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Class Mammalia
Order Artiodactyla
Suborder Ruminantia
Family Antilocapridae


Antilocapra sp.—Pronghorn // Antilocapra americana—Pronghorn

Antilocapra/Stockoceros—Pronghorns or Stock's PronghornRegional Pleistocene distribution of Antilocapra/Stockoceros

Stockoceros conklingi is slightly smaller than Antilocapra, but discrimination isn't always clear.


Rancholabrean: Broadwell Lake West (Jefferson 1991b).

Late Wisconsin: Harris' Pocket (Harris 1989: cf.).

Literature.Harris 1989; Jefferson 1991b.


Antilocapra/Tetrameryx—Pronghorn or Four-horned PronghornPleistocene distribution of Antilocapra/Tetrameryx


Rancholabrean: Quitovac (White et al. 2010).


White et al. 2010.


Antilocapra sp.—PronghornPleistocene distribution of Antilocapra sp.

Several sites record Antilocapra sp.


Late Blancan/Early Irvingtonian: Elsinore: Mimomys (Pajak et al. 1996).

Irvingtonian: Bautista Badlands (Frick 1921: ?).

Late Irvingtonian: Elsinore: Pauba Formation (Pajak et al. 1996: cf.).

?Late Irvingtonian/Rancholabrean: Emery Borrow Pit (Jefferson 1991b: ? gen.).

Irvingtonian/Rancholabrean: Manix Lake (Jefferson 1991b).

Rancholabrean: Kramer (Jefferson 1991b).

Wisconsin: Imperial Highway (Jefferson 1991b).

Late Wisconsin: Human Corridor (Harris 1993c); Navajo Lake (Morgan and Lucas 2005: cf.).

Late Wisconsin/Holocene: Conkling Cavern (Conkling 1932).


Conkling 1932; Frick 1921; Harris 1993c; Jefferson 1991b; Morgan and Lucas 2005; Pajak et al. 1996.


Antilocapra americana (Ord 1815)—PronghornRegional Pleistocene distribution of Antilocapra americana

The Pronghorn is the largest of the regional pronghorns. As described, Stockoceros onusrosagris is somewhat smaller, S. conklingi yet smaller, and Capromeryx notably smaller. However, S. onusrosagris and S. conklingi are treated here as a single species (see Stockoceros account). Fragmentary post-cranial material may not be distinguished with certainty between Antilocapra and Stockoceros and between Stockoceros and Capromeryx.


Irvingtonian: Anza-Borrego (Murray 2006)

Sangamon: Newport Bay Mesa (Jefferson 1991b).

Early/Early-Mid Wisconsin: Lost Valley (Harris 1993c).

Mid Wisconsin: McKittrick (Schultz 1937); Pendejo Cave (Harris 2003).

Mid/Late Wisconsin: Diamond Valley (Springer et al. 2009); Rancho La Brea (Stock and Harris 1992).

Mid/Late Wisconsin/Holocene: Jimenez Cave (Messing 1986); Sierra Diablo Cave (UTEP).

Late Wisconsin: Algerita Blossom Cave (UTEP: cf. gen. et sp.); Antelope Cave (Reynolds, Reynolds, Bell, and Pitzer 1991); Bison Chamber (Harris 1989); Charlies Parlor (Harris 1989); Maricopa (Jefferson 1991b); Muskox Cave (Logan 1981: cf. gen. et sp.); Pendejo Cave (Harris 2003); Vulture Cave (Mead and Phillips 1981).

Late Wisconsin/Holocene: Burnet Cave (Schultz and Howard 1935: cf. gen. et sp.); Isleta Cave No. 1 (Harris 1993c); Isleta Cave No. 2 (UTEP); Kokoweef Cave (Reynolds, Reynolds, et al. 1991); Pendejo Cave (Harris 2003); U-Bar Cave (Harris 1993c); Williams Cave (Ayer 1936).


Ayer 1936; Harris 1989, 1993c, 2003; Jefferson 1991b; Logan 1981; Mead and Phillips 1981; Messing 1986; Murray 2006; Pajak et al. 1996; Reynolds, Reynolds, et al. 1991; Reynolds, Reynolds, Bell, and Pitzer 1991; Schultz 1937; Schultz and Howard 1935; Springer et al. 2009); Stock and Harris 1992).


Last Update: 27 May 2014 2014