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Class Aves
Order Passeriformes
Family Icteridae


Agelaius sp.—BlackbirdsPleistocene regional distribution of Agelaius sp.


Sangamon: Newport Bay Mesa (Jefferson 1991a).

Late Wisconsin: Maricopa (Jefferson 1991a).

Literature. Jefferson 1991a.


Agelaius phoeniceus (Linnaeus 1766)—Red-winged BlackbirdPleistocene regional distribution of Agelaius phoeniceus

Red-winged Blackbird photo by Geoff Gallice

Red-winged Blackbird. Photograph by Geoff Gallice under Creative Commons Attribution License.

Red-winged Blackbirds are closely tied to aquatic situations with rushes or other emergent vegetation. They are widespread in the region today.


Late Pleistocene: Rancho del Oro (Jefferson 2014).

Sangamon: La Brisca (Van Devender et al. 1985).

Mid/Late Wisconsin: Dark Canyon Cave (Harris 1993c: ? gen. et sp.); Rancho La Brea (Stock and Harris 1992).

Late Wisconsin: Harris' Pocket (Harris 1989); Skull Cave (Emslie 1988).

Late Wisconsin/Holocene: Conkling Cavern (Howard and Miller 1933: ?).

Literature. Emslie 1988; Harris 1989, 1993c; Howard and Miller 1933; Jefferson 2014; Stock and Harris 1992; Van Devender et al. 1985.


Last Update: 28 May 2015