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El Golfo

MEXICO: Sonora


El GolfoAge. Irvingtonian, based largely on faunal evidence (Croxen et al. 2007).

General Description. Croxen et al. (2007) describe the geography and geology at some length. The El Golfo local fauna of northwestern Sonora comes from a coastal strip of badland topography near the community of El Golfo de Santa Clara. About 255 km2 are exposed and consist of Colorado River deltaic deposits.

Discussion. In addition to the taxa listed below, there were several family-level identifications (Croxen et al. 2007): Ictaluridae (catfish), Istiophoridae (billfish), Iguanidae (iguanid lizards), Tetraonidae? (grouse), and Mephitidae ("genus of unidentified skunk"). Based largely on the recovered fauna, Croxen et al. (2007) hypothesized the presence of four ecological communities: freshwater aquatic, riparian gallery forest, shrub and brush woodland, and savannah-like grassland. They also suggested that tropical to subtropical climates may have predominated.

Fauna (all from Croxen et al. 2007 unless otherwise noted).


Xyrauchen sp.—Razorback Sucker
Ptychocheilus sp.—Pike-minnow


Incilius alvarius—Colorado River Toad

Bufo alvarius sp.

Lithobates sp.—North American True Frogs

Rana sp.


Trachemys scripta—Pond Slider Turtle
Kinosternon sp.—Mud Turtles (cf.)
Gopherus sp.—Tortoises (?)
Hesperotestudo sp.—Hesperotestudo Tortoises


Constrictor constrictor—Boa Constrictor
Masticophis sp.—Coachwhip
Rhinocheilus lecontei—Long-nosed Snake
Crotalus sp.—Rattlesnakes


Phoenicopterus sp.—Flamingos
Anas sp.—Dabbling Ducks (cf.)
Chen sp.—Goose (?)
Coragyps occidentalis—Western Black Vulture
Gymnogyps sp.—Condors
Grus sp.—Crane
Bubo sp.—Great Horned Owls


Mammuthus meridionalis—Southern Mammoth (cf.)
Cuvieronius sp.—Cuvier's Gomphothere
Megalonyx wheatleyi—Wheatley's Ground Sloth
Nothrotheriops texanus—Texas Ground Sloth
Paramylodon harlani—Harlan's Ground Sloth
Myrmecophaga tridactyla—Giant Anteater
Spermophile Ground Squirrel

Spermophilus sp.

Castor californicus—Kellogg's Beaver (cf.)
Dipodomys sp.—Kangaroo Rats
Geomys sp.—Eastern Pocket Gophers
Ondatra sp.—Muskrats (?)
Neotoma (Neotoma) sp.—Neotoma Woodrats
Neotoma (Hodomys) sp.—Hodomys Woodrats
Sigmodon curtisi—Curtis Cotton Rat
Sigmodon sp.—Cotton Rats
Coendou kleini—Klein's Coendou (Sussman et al. 2016 (cf.)
Neochoerus dichroplax—Capybaras
Lepus sp.—Jackrabbits
Sylvilagus hibbardi—Hibbard's Rabbit
Sorex sp.—Long-tailed Shrews
Felis rexroadensis—Rexroad Cat
Lynx sp.—Bobcats (cf.)
Homotherium sp.—Scimitar Cat
Miracinonyx inexpectatus—Cheetah-like Cat
Panthera onca—Jaguar (cf.)
Chasmaporthetes ossifragus—American Hyaena
Canis lepophagus—Johnston's Coyote
Canis edwardii—Edward's Wolf
Urocyon sp.—Gray Foxes (cf.)
Tremarctos floridanus—Florida Spectacled Bear
Taxidea sp.—Badgers
Equus sp.—Giant Horse
Equus (Plesippus) sp.—Zebra-like Horse
Equus conversidens—Mexican Horse (cf.)
Equus scotti—Scott's Horse (aff.)
Tapirus californicus—California Tapir (cf.)
Tapirus haysii—Hay's Tapir (cf.)
Platygonus vetus—Leidy's Peccary (cf.)
Camelops sp.—Yesterday's Camels
Gigantocamelus/Titanotylopus sp.—Giant Camels
Hemiauchenia blancoensis—Blanco Llama (cf.)
Hemiauchenia gracilis—Gracile Llama
Hemiauchenia sp. (small)—Long-legged Small Llama
Palaeolama sp.—Stout-legged Llamas
Navahoceros sp.—Mountain Deer (cf.)
Odocoileus hemionus—Mule Deer (?)
Odocoileus virginianus—White-tailed Deer
Capromeryx furcifer—Matthew's Pronghorn
Stockoceros sp.—Four-horned Pronghorn

Tetrameryx (Stockoceros) sp.

†Gen. et sp. nov.—Four-horned Pronghorn
Ovis sp. nov.—Mountain Sheep

Literature. Brattstrom 1955; Gazin 1942; Kurtén and Anderson 1980; Lindsay 1984; Morgan and White 2005; Sussman et al. 2016; Wetmore 1924.


Last Update: 3 Oct 2016