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MEXICO: Sonora: 29°41'N, 109°39'W, elev. 605 m


Location of the Tepara site

Age. Mid Wisconsin. Based on a radiometric date, for a time it was thought that the fossils accumulated at some time between 570,000 and 310,000 years ago (Mead et al. 2006). Further dating efforts utilizing three different methods, instead indicate deposition between 40 and 43 cal. ka (Bright et al. 2010), placing it within the mid Wisconsin.

General Description. Rio Moctezuma, 13 km south of Moctezuma (Mead et al. 2006). Identification of the fauna is still underway, and identifications to the level of family only are not given in the faunal list below (except for the extinct stork); however, fish, turtles, and shrews are present in the fauna (Mead et al. 2006) and chelonians identified only the the family level include the Testudinidae, Chelydridae, and Trionychidae (Moscato and Jasinski 2012).

Mead et al.(2006) interpreted the site as relatively short-lived (possibly on the order of thousands of years) aquatic habitat with an ecological succession from a site with a large area of open water ending up with savanna. It appears as though the habitats during the earlier stages of aquatic succession were bounded by savanna grasslands.



Agosia chrysogaster Girard 1856—Longfin Dace (White et al. 2010).


Anaxyrus/Incilius sp.—Nearctic or Middle American Toads (Mead et al. 2006)


Hyla sp.—Tree Frogs (White et al. 2010)

Lithobates sp.—North American True Frogs (Mead et al. 2006)



Terrapene sp.—Box Turtles (White et al. 2010)
Trachemys scripta—Pond Slider (White et al. 2010)
Kinosternon sp.—American Mud Turtles (White et al. 2010)


Crocodylus acutus—American Crocodile (Mead et al. 2006: cf. gen. et sp.)

"The identification of the crocodilian remains from Térapa as cf. Crocodylus acutus is based purely on historical biogeography" (Mead et al. 2006:233)


Anabernicula oregonensis—Oregon Pygmy Goose (Steadman and Mead 2010: cf.)
Anas acuta—Northern Pintail (Steadman and Mead 2010)
Anas clypeata—Northern Shoveler (Steadman and Mead 2010)
Anas crecca—Green-winged Teal (Steadman and Mead 2010)
Anas discors/cyanoptera—Blue-winged or Cinnamon Teal (Steadman and Mead 2010)
Anas platyrhynchos/diazi—Mallard/Mexican Duck (Steadman and Mead 2010)
Anas strepera—Gadwall (Steadman and Mead 2010)
Anser sp.—Snow or White-fronted Goose (Steadman and Mead 2010)
Aythya collaris—Ring-necked Duck (Steadman and Mead 2010)
Branta canadensis—Canada Goose (Steadman and Mead 2010)
Oxyura jamaicensis—Ruddy Duck (Steadman and Mead 2010)
Callipepla douglasii—Elegant Quail (Steadman and Mead 2010)
Podiceps nigricollis—Eared Grebe (Steadman and Mead 2010)
Podilymbus podiceps—Pied-billed Grebe (Steadman and Mead 2010)
Pelecanus erythrorhynchus—White Pelican (Steadman and Mead 2010)
Phalacrocorax auritus—Double-crested Cormorant (Steadman and Mead 2010)
Ardea alba—Great Egret (Steadman and Mead 2010)
Ardea herodias—Great Blue Heron (Steadman and Mead 2010)
Plegadis chihi—Ibis (Steadman and Mead 2010: cf.)
†Ciconiidae sp.—Large extinct stork (Steadman and Mead 2010)
Aquila chrysaetos—Golden Eagle (Steadman and Mead 2010)
Buteogallus (Wetmoregyps) daggetti—Daggett's Eagle (Steadman and Mead 2010)
Circus cyaneus—Northern Harrier (Steadman and Mead 2010)
Ictinia sp.—Mississippi/Plumeous-type Kite (Steadman and Mead 2010)
Fulica americana—American Coot (Steadman and Mead 2010: cf.)
Gallinula chloropus—Common Moorhen (Steadman and Mead 2010)
Porphyrio martinicus—Purple Gallinule (Steadman and Mead 2010)
Porzana carolina—Sora (Steadman and Mead 2010)
Charadrius vociferus—Killdeer (Steadman and Mead 2010)
Oraristrix brea—Tar-pit Owl (Campbell and Bocheński 2010)
Caracara cheriway—Crested Caracara (Steadman and Mead 2010)
Agelaius phoeniceus—Red-winged Blackbird (Oswald and Steadman 2011)
Euphagus cyanocephalus—Brewer's Blackbird (Oswald and Steadman 2011)
Icterus spurius—Orchard Oriole (Oswald and Steadman 2011)
Molothrus aeneus—Bronzed Cowbird (Oswald and Steadman 2011)
M. ater—Brown-headed Cowbird (Oswald and Steadman 2011)
Quiscalus mexicanus—Great-tailed Grackle (Oswald and Steadman 2011)
Pandanaris convexa—Extinct Cowbird (Oswald and Steadman 2011)
Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus—Yellow-headed Blackbird (Oswald and Steadman 2011)


Mammuthus sp.—Mammoth (Mead et al. 2006)
Cuvieronius sp.—Cuvier's Gomphothere (Mead et al. 2006)
Glyptotherium cylindricum (Brown 1912)—Cylindrical Glyptodont (Mead et al. 2007)
Pampatherium mexicanum—Mexican Pampathere (Mead et al. 2007: cf.)
Paramylodon sp.—Mylodon Sloth (Mead et al. 2006)
Neotoma sp.—Woodrat (Mead et al. 2006)
Sigmodon sp.—Cotton Rat (Mead et al. 2006)
Hydrochaeris sp.—Capybara (Mead et al. 2006)
Sylvilagus sp.—Cottontail (Mead et al. 2006: cf.)
Notiosorex sp.—Notiosorex Shrews (Carranza-Castañeda and Rodán-Quintana 2007)
Tadarida brasiliensis&mash;Mexican Free-tailed Bat (Carranza-Castañeda and Rodán-Quintana 2007)
Antrozous pallidus—Pallid Bat (Carranza-Castañeda and Rodán-Quintana 2007)
Lasiurus sp.—Hairy-tailed Bats (Carranza-Castañeda and Rodán-Quintana 2007)
Myotis sp—Myotis Bats (Carranza-Castañeda and Rodán-Quintana 2007)
Lynx rufus—Bobcat (Mead et al. 2006)
Canis dirus—Dire Wolf (Hodnett et al. 2009)
Procyon sp.—Raccoon (Mead et al. 2006)
Equus conversidens—Mexican Horse (Carranza-Castañeda and Rodán-Quintana 2007)
Equus scotti—Scott's Horse (Carranza-Castañeda and Rodán-Quintana 2007)

As Equus excelsus, considering E. scotti as a synonym of that species

Tapirus sp.—Tapir (Mead et al. 2006)
Platygonus sp.—Peccary (Mead et al. 2006: cf.)
Camelops-size—American Camel (Mead et al. 2006)
Hemiauchenia-size—American Llama (Mead et al. 2006)
Odocoileus virginianus—White-tailed Deer (Oswald and Steadman 1911)
Capromeryx furcifer—Matthews Pronghorn (Mead et al. 2006)

Capromeryx sp.

Stockoceros sp.—Four-horned Pronghorn (Mead et al. 2006)
Bison sp.—Bison (Mead et al. 2006)

Literature. Bright et al. 2010; Campbell and Bocheński 2010; Carranza-Castañeda and Rodán-Quintana 2007; Czaplewski et al. 2014; Hodnett et al. 2009; Mead et al. 2006; Mead et al. 2007; Moscato and Jasinski 2012; Oswald and Steadman 2011; Steadman and Mead 2010; White et al. 2010.


Last Update: 8 Feb 2017