Main Menu

Class Reptilia
Order Squamata
Suborder Serpentes
Family Colubridae


Salvadora/Coluber constrictor sp.—Patchnose Snakes or Eastern RacerDistribution of fossil Salvadora/Coluber constrictor


Mid/Late Wisconsin: Tsuma Properties, San Clemente (Jefferson 2014).

Literature. 2014.


Salvadora sp.—Patchnose SnakesDistribution of fossil Salvadora

Salvadora grahamiae, photo by Carls S. LiebHolman (1970) and Van Devender and Worthington (1977) were unable to distinguish the Southwestern species of patchnose snakes on vertebral characters. The latter noted that, depending on the species, anything from desertscrub to forest can be inhabited.

Fig. 1. Mountain Patchnose Snake (Salvadora grahamiae), one of the modern regional species of Salvadora. Photograph by Carl S. Lieb.


Sangamon: La Brisca (Van Devender et al. 1985).

Mid Wisconsin: U-Bar Cave (Harris 1993c: cf.).

Mid/Late Wisconsin: Animal Fair (Harris 1993c).

Late Wisconsin: Charlies Parlor (Harris 1989: cf.); Bison Chamber (Holman 1970); Harris' Pocket (Holman 1970); Upper Sloth Cave (Logan and Black 1979: cf.).

Late Wisconsin/Holocene: Deadman Cave (Mead et al. 1984); Howell's Ridge Cave (Van Devender and Worthington 1977); Pendejo Cave (UTEP).

Literature. Harris 1989, 1993c, 2003; Holman 1970; Logan and Black 1979; Mead et al. 1984; Van Devender and Worthington 1977; Van Devender et al. 1985.


Salvadora hexalepis (Cope 1866)—Western Patch-nosed SnakesRegional Pleistocene distribution of Salvadora hexalepis


Late Wisconsin/Holocene: Kokoweef Cave (Reynolds, Reynolds, et al. 1991)

Literature. Reynolds, Reynolds, et al. 1991.


Last Update: 22 Apr 2015