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Class Reptilia
Order Squamata
Suborder Serpentes
Family Colubridae


Sonora semiannulata Baird & Girard 1853—Ground SnakeDistribution of fossil Sonora

Sonora semiannulata, photo by Carls S. LiebAs the only named living species of Sonora, presumably all the Wisconsin specimens belong to this species. "Sonora sp." and "Sonora semiannulata are plotted together on the distribution map and not separated out in the sites list.

These are small, arid-land snakes. Van Devender and Worthington (1977) gave the habitat as most communities below woodland.

Fig. 1. Ground Snake from El Paso County, TX. Photograph by Carl S. Lieb.

Late Wisconsin: Desert Almond (Van Devender et al. 1977a); Picacho Peak (Van Devender et al. 1991); U-Bar Cave 15-18 ka (Harris 1989: ?).

Late Wisconsin/Holocene: Fowlkes Cave (Parmley 1990: as sp.); Howell's Ridge Cave (Van Devender and Worthington 1977; New Water Mountains (Van Devender and Mead 1978).

Literature. Harris 1989, 2003; Parmley 1990; Van Devender and Mead 1978; Van Devender and Worthington 1977; Van Devender et al. 1977a; Van Devender et al. 1991.


Last Update: 5 Mar 2013