Main Menu

Class Amphibia
Order Anura
Family Hylidae


Hyla arenicolor—Canyon Treefrog // Hyla wrightorum—Arizona Treefrog // Pseudacris sp.—Chorus Frogs // Pseudacris cadaverina—California Treefrog // Pseudacris rigilla—Pacific Treefrog // Pseudacris triseriata—Western Chorus Frog // Smilisca fodiens—Lowland Burrowing Treefrog

Hyla sp.—TreefrogsRegional Pleistocene distribution of Hyla sp.

Treefrogs are small anurans noted for their climbing abilities. Although frequently active out of water, water will be nearby.


?Late Irvingtonian/Rancholabrean: Emery Borrow Pit (Jefferson 1991a).

Rancholabrean: Centennial Parkway (large sp. and small sp.) (Jefferson et al. 2015); Detention Basin, Upper Las Vegas Wash (Jefferson et al. 2015: cf.).

Late Pleistocene: Wanis View (Jefferson 2014).

Rancholabrean (Sangamon): Papago Springs Cave (Czaplewski and Mead et al. 1999).

Mid Wisconsin: Papago Springs Cave (Czaplewski and Mead et al. 1999); Térapa (White et al. 2010).

Mid/Late Wisconsin: Rancho La Brea (Brattstrom 1953).

Late Wisconsin: Valley Wells (Springer et al. 2010).

Rancholabrean/Holocene: Arvin Landfill (Jefferson 2014: ?).

Literature. Brattstrom 1953; Czaplewski and Mead et al. 1999; Jefferson 1991b, 2014; Jefferson et al. 2015; Springer et al. 2005, 2010; White et al. 2010.


Hyla arenicolor Cope 1886—Canyon TreefrogPleistocene distribution of Hyla arenicolor

An inhabitant of rocky canyons, this small frog was tentatively identified only by a single element (a 3rd vertebra) from a single stratigraphic level (150-160 cm) from Howell's Ridge Cave. Van Devender and Worthington (1977) separated it from H. eximia wrightorum on the basis of the relatively larger neural canal. The taxon was identified from La Brisca on the basis of a number of ilia (Van Devender et al. 1985).

Carl S. Lieb photo: Hyla arenicolor

Fig. 1. Canyon Treefrog (Hyla arenicolor). Photograph by Carl S. Lieb.

The pads that can be seen at the end of the toes allow these frogs to easily climb vertical surfaces and are typical of the members of the family.


Sangamon: La Brisca (Van Devender et al. 1985).

Late Wisconsin/Holocene: Howell's Ridge Cave (Van Devender and Worthington 1977: cf.).

Literature. Van Devender and Worthington 1977; Van Devender et al. 1985.


Hyla wrightorum Taylor 1939—Arizona TreefrogPleistocene regional distribution of Hyla wrightorum

Synonyms. Hyla eximia.

Lindsay (1984) reported Hyla eximia from California Wash. Since then, the northern populations have been recognized as a separate species, H. wrightorum (Duellman 2001).

The Arizona Treefrog currently occurs in the mountains of central Arizona and central-western New Mexico. A disjunct population occurs in the Huachuca Mountains of southeastern Arizona, and other populations occur south in Mexico. Occurrence usually is in damp or wet areas such as along streams or in marshes in higher elevations.


Late Blancan: California Wash (Lindsay 1984)

Literature. Duellman 2001; Lindsay 1984.


Pseudacris sp. Fitzinger, 1843—Chorus FrogsRegional Pleistocene distribution of Pseudacris sp.


Late Wisconsin: Larramendy North, Santa Rosa Island (Mead et al. 2018).

Literature. Mead et al. 2018.


Pseudacris cadaverina (Baird & Girard, 1852)—California TreefrogDistribution of fossil Pseudacris cadaverina


Mid/Late Wisconsin: Diamond Valley (Springer et al. 2009: cf.).

Literature. Springer et al. 2009.


Pseudacris rigilla (Cope 1866)—Pacific TreefrogRegional Pleistocene distribution of Pseudacris rigilla


Sangamon: Newport Bay Mesa (Jefferson 1991a).

Mid Wisconsin: Pacific City (Wake and Roeder 2009).

Literature. Jefferson 1991a; Wake and Roeder 2009.


Pseudacris triseriata (Wied-Neuwied 1838)—Western Chorus FrogRegional Pleistocene distribution of Pseudacris triseriata

USGS photo of Pseudacris triseriata Both Holman (1970) and Applegarth (1979) have identified this small hylid from Dry Cave sites. Applegarth placed the point of nearest known modern occurrence as 327 km to the northwest and interpreted the frog as very common near the cave and indicative of "substantial winter snowfall and plenty of green grass in the summer" (p. 86).

Fig. 1. Western Chorus Frog (Pseudacris triseriata). Photograph courtesy of US Geological Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center.


Medial Irvingtonian: SAM Cave (Rogers et al. 2000).

Late Wisconsin: Animal Fair 18-20 ka (Applegarth 1979); Harris' Pocket (Holman 1970); TT II (Harris 1993c).

Late Wisconsin/Holocene: SAM Cave (Rogers et al. 2000).

Literature. Applegarth 1979; Holman 1970; Rogers et al. 2000.


Smilisca fodiens (Boulenger 1882)—Lowland Burrowing TreefrogRegional distribution of fossil Smilisca fodiens

Synonyms. Pternohyla fodiens.

This hylid is an inhabitant of arid subtropical habitats and occurs relatively near the La Brisca site at present (Van Devender et al. 1985).


Sangamon: La Brisca (Van Devender et al. 1985).

Literature. Van Devender et al. 1985.


Last Update: 5 Oct 2019