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Class Reptilia
Order Squamata
Suborder Serpentes
Family Colubridae


Pituophis sp.—Gopher SnakesDistribution of regional Pleistocene Pituophis sp.


Late Wisconsin: Mountain View Country Club (Jefferson 2014).




Pituophis catenifer (Blainville 1835)—Gopher SnakeDistribution of  regional Pleistocene Pituophis catenifer

Synonyms. Pituophis melanoleucus.

Pituophis catenifer, photo by Carls S. LiebAt present, the geographically widespread Gopher Snake is one of the most common snakes in our region. It inhabits virtually all terrestrial habitats in the Southwest (Van Devender and Worthington 1977). The scientific name of the Southwestern populations of Pituophis has swung back and forth between P. catenifer and P. melanoleucus.


Fig. 1. Pituophis catenifer. Photograph courtesy of Carl S. Lieb.


Late Blancan: California Wash (Lindsay 1984).

Irvingtonian/Rancholabrean: Cadiz (Jefferson 2014); Emery Borrow Pit (Jefferson 1991a).

Sangamon: San Pedro Lumber Co. (Jefferson 1991a).

Wisconsin: Costeau Pit (Jefferson 1991a).

Early Mid or Early Wisconsin: Lost Valley (UTEP).

Mid Wisconsin: Pacific City (Wake and Roeder 2009); Pendejo Cave (Harris 2003); Rancho La Brea (LaDuke 1991); U-Bar Cave (Harris 1987: ? gen. et sp.).

Mid/Late Wisconsin: Diamond Valley (Springer et al. 2009).

Mid Wisconsin/Holocene: Shelter Cave (Brattstrom 1964).

Mid/Late Wisconsin/Holocene: Sierra Diablo Cave (UTEP); Tsuma Property, San Clemente (Jefferson 2014).

Late Wisconsin: Desert Almond (Van Devender et al. 1977a); Gypsum Cave (Brattstrom 1954); Picacho Peak (Van Devender et al. 1991); Pendejo Cave (Harris 2003); Rampart Cave (Van Devender et al. 1977a); Test Trench II (UTEP); Wolcott Peak (Van Devender and Mead 1978).

Late Wisconsin/Holocene: Conkling Cavern (Brattstrom 1964); Deadman Cave (Mead et al. 1984); Fowlkes Cave (Parmley 1990); Howell's Ridge Cave (Van Devender and Worthington 1977); Isleta Cave No. 2 (UTEP); Kokoweef Cave (Reynolds, Reynolds, et al. 1991); Shelter Cave (Brattstrom 1964); U-Bar Cave (UTEP).

Literature. Brattstrom 1954, 1964; Harris 1987, 2003; Jefferson 1991a, , 2014; LaDuke 1991; Lindsay 1984; Mead et al. 1984; Parmley 1990; Reynolds, Reynolds, et al. 1991; Springer et al. 2009; Van Devender and Mead 1978; Van Devender and Worthington 1977; Van Devender et al. 1977a; Van Devender et al. 1991; Wake and Roeder 2009.


Last Update: 6 Jan 2009