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Class Mammalia
Order Proboscidea
Family Mammutidae


Mammut sp.—MastodonsPleistocene distribution of Mammut sp.


Rancholabrean: Beverly Hills (Jefferson 1991b); Black Butte (Jefferson 1991b: ? gen.); Camarillo (Jefferson 1991b); Corona, California (Jefferson 1991b); El Fin del Mundo (Sanchez et al. 2009); Fourth and Mesa streets, San Pedro (Jefferson 1991b); Gaviota Pass (Jefferson 1991b); Hicks Canyon (Jefferson 2014); Manchester and Airport boulevards (Jefferson 1991b: ? gen.); Manning Rock, Irwindale (Jefferson 1991b); Outfall Sewer, Rodeo and Kelley, Culver City (Jefferson 1991b); Point Sal (Jefferson 1991b); Rubidoux (Jefferson 1991b); Salt Creek, California (Jefferson 1991b); San Buenaventura (Jefferson 1991b); Santa Susana Pass, north of Chattsworth (Jefferson 1991b); Tijuana River Valley (Jefferson 1991b); Tremaine and 8th streets (Jefferson 1991b).

Mid/Late Wisconsin: Glendale (Jefferson et al. 2015).

Late Wisconsin: Dove Springs Megafauna Loc. (Jefferson 2014: cf.); Maricopa (Jefferson 1991b).

Literature. Jefferson 1991b, 2014; Jefferson et al. 2015; Sanchez et al. 2009.


Mammut americanum (Kerr 1791)—American MastodontPleistocene distribution of Mammut americanum

Three families of proboscideans are represented in the Pleistocene of the region. Mastodons have relatively simple cheek teeth, suggesting that they were browsers on soft vegetation. Stomach contents from elsewhere in North America bear this up, with conifers making up a fair amount of the diet.

Although common during the Pleistocene in the northern parts of the continent, mastodons are relatively uncommon in the inland West and Southwest. Extinction apparently occurred concurrently with other megafaunal taxa. Fiedel (2009) gives a number dates seemingly marking the last survivors and ranging from 11,720 ± 110 to 10,395 ± 100 BP.

Fossil Mammut americanum, Museum of the Earth

Fig. 1. Mastodont skeleton, Museum of the Earth. This file is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 2.0 License. This image was originally posted to Flickr by bronayur at


Pleistocene: Lemitar (Morgan and Lucas 2005); Los Lunas (Morgan and Lucas 2005); Piñon (Morgan and Lucas 2005); Rancho Creek (Wheeler 1875); Trapped Rock Draw (Morgan and Lucas 2005); Tree Spring, Sandia Mts. (Morgan and Lucas 2005).

Irvingtonian: El Paso (East of El Paso, Personal Observation; Northeast El Paso [UTEP]); N Bowie Mastodont Site (Pasenko 2012); Northeast El Paso (UTEP).

?Irvingtonian/Rancholabrean: Emery Borrow Pit (Jefferson 1991b).

Early Rancholabrean: Albuquerque Gravel Pits (Morgan and Lucas 2005); Robertson Ranch (Jefferson 2014).

Rancholabrean: Arbogast Ranch (Jefferson 1991b); Beverly Blvd. and Kilkea Drive (Jefferson 1991b); Carizzo Plains (Jefferson 1991b); Chorro Creek (Jefferson 1991b); Consolidated Rock Co., Alameda St. near 26th St. (Jefferson 1991b); Cypress and Slauson avenues, Hyde Park (Jefferson 1991b); Jal (Schultz 1943); La Cienega Blvd. near Colgate Ave. (Jefferson 1991b); Los Angeles Brick Yard No. 3 (Jefferson 1991b); Metro Rail Hollywood Tunnel (Jefferson 2014); National City West (Jefferson 2014); Placitas (Hibben 1941; Morgan and Lucas 2005); Solano Beach (Jefferson 1991b).

Late Pleistocene: Wanis View (Jefferson 2014).

Sangamon: Chandler Sand Pit, Rolling Hills Estates (Jefferson 1991b); Newport Bay Mesa (Jefferson 1991b).

Wisconsin: Imperial Highway (Jefferson 1991b); Lehner Site (Mead et al. 1979).

Mid Wisconsin: McKittrick (Schultz 1937).

Mid/Late Wisconsin: Diamond Valley (Springer et al. 2009); Rancho La Brea (Stock and Harris 1992).

Late Wisconsin: Billings (Minckley et al. 1997); Cerros Negros (Agenbroad et al. 2013); Davidson Canyon (Pasenko 2011); La Mirada (Jefferson 1991b); Leupp (Minckley et al. 1997); M & M Mastodon (Pasenko 2011); Placitas (Hibben 1941); Saint Johns (Agenbroad et al. 2013); Sandia Cave, Sandia Level (Hibben 1941; Morgan and Lucas 1997).

Literature. Agenbroad et al. 2013; Fiedel 2009; Hibben 1941; Jefferson 1991a, 1991b, 2014; Lucas and Morgan 1997; Mead et al. 1979; Minckley et al 1997; Morgan and Lucas 2005; Pasenko 2011, 2012; Schultz 1937, 1943; Springer et al. 2009; Stock and Harris 1992; Wheeler 1875.


Last Update: 29 May 2015