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Stanton's Cave

AZ: Coconino Co.


Stanton's CaveAge. Holocene and Late Wisconsin. Mead et al. (2005) report dates ranging from 10,870 ± 200 to 23,030 ±300. Olsen and Olsen (1984) report a date of 13,770 ± 500. Harington (1984) lists 11 radiocarbon dates on Oreamnos horn sheaths, ranging from 11,700 ± 380 to 20,060 ± 930. According to Rea and Hargrave (1984), Paul S. Martin considered material below 20 cm to represent the end of the Pleistocene, though noting that some surface material and woodrat midden contents also may be Pleistocene in age. Olsen and Olsen (1984) indicate that Euler placed the Holocene/Pleistocene boundary at the 25-30-cm level.

General Description. A large cave in Grand Canyon National Park, 51 river kilometers below Lee's Ferry and ca. 44 m above the present level of the Colorado River (Euler 1984a).

Archaeological materials, mostly in the form of split-twig figurines, were dated to between 3000 and 4000 years ago (Euler 1984b).

Unfortunately, Olsen and Olsen (1984) gave little stratigraphic information in their study of the mammals and reptiles. In the faunal list, taxa not indicated as occurring below 20 cm are listed as Late Wisconsin/Holocene unless clearly Pleistocene (e.g., Oreamnos harringtoni).


Late Wisconsin


Catostomus discobolus—Bluehead Sucker (Miller and Smith 1984)


Lampropeltis getula—Common Kingsnake (Olsen and Olsen 1984)


Anas discors—Blue-winged Teal(Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Anas platyrhynchos—Mallard (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Teratornis merriami—Merriam's Teratorn (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Gymnogyps californianus—California Condor (Rea and Hargrave 1984)

More than half of the remains are larger than present day California Condors, thus falling into the Pleistocene species G. amplus or subspecies (G. c. amplus); most of the remainder are in areas of overlap between "amplus" and the modern, smaller form.

Actitis macularia—Spotted Sandpiper (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Calidris melanotos—Pectoral Sandpiper (Rea and Hargrave 1984)

Erolia melanotos

Phalaropus fulicarius—Red Phalarope (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Phalaropus lobatus—Red-necked Phalarope (Rea and Hargrave 1984)

Lobipes lobatus

Bubo virginianus—Great Horned Owl (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Falco sparverius—American Kestrel (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Cinclus mexicanus—American Dipper (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Junco hyemalis—Dark-eyed Junco (Rea and Hargrave 1984)


Neotoma sp.—Woodrats (Olsen and Olsen 1984)
Peromyscus sp.—Deer Mice (Olsen and Olsen 1984)
Eptesicus fuscus—Big Brown Bat (Olsen and Olsen 1984)

Eptesicus cf. E. fuscus

Sylvilagus audubonii—Desert Cottontail (Olsen and Olsen 1984: cf.)
Lontra canadensis—North American River Otter (Olsen and Olsen 1984)
Equus sp.—Horses (Harington 1984)
Camelops hesternus—Yesterday's Camel (Mead et al. 2005)
Oreamnos harringtoni—Harrington's Mountain Goat (Harington 1984)

Late Wisconsin/Holocene


Gila cypha—Humpback Chub (Miller and Smith 1984)
Gila elegans—Bonytail (Miller and Smith 1984)
Ptychocheilus lucius—Colorado Squawfish (Miller and Smith 1984)
Castostomus latipinnis—Flannelmouth Sucker (Miller and Smith 1984)


Crotaphytus collaris—Eastern Collared Lizard (Olsen and Olsen 1984)
Sauromalus ater—Chuckwalla (Olsen and Olsen 1984)

Sauromelas obesus

Sceloporus cowlesi—Southern Plateau Lizard (Olsen and Olsen 1984)

Sceloporus undulatus


Aix sponsa—Wood Duck (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Anas acuta—Northern Pintail (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Anas americana—American Wigeon (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Anas clypeata—Northern Shoveler (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Anas crecca—Green-winged Teal (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Anas cyanoptera—Cinnamon Teal (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Anas strepera—Gadwall (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Aythya affinis—Lesser Scaup (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Aythya americana—Redhead (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Aythya marila—Greater Scaup (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Aythya valisineria—Canvasback (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Branta canadensis—Canadian Goose (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Bucephala albeola—Bufflehead (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Bucephala clangula—Common Goldeneye (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Chen caerulescens—Snow Goose (Rea and Hargrave 1984)

Anser caerulescens

Clangula hyemalis—Oldsquaw (Rea and Hargrave 1984: Cf. gen. et sp.)
Lophodytes cucullatus—Hooded Merganser (Rea and Hargrave 1984)

Mergus cucullatus

Mergus merganser—Common Merganser (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Oxyura jamaicensis—Ruddy Duck (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Centrocercus urophasianus—Greater Sage-grouse (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Meleagris crassipes—Big-foot Turkey (Rea 1980)
Aechmophorus occidentalis—Western Grebe (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Podiceps nigricollis—Eared Grebe (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Cathartes aura—Turkey Vulture (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Ardea herodias—Great Blue Heron (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Accipiter striatus—Sharp-shinned Hawk (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Aquila chrysaetos—Golden Eagle (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Buteo jamaicensis—Red-tailed Hawk (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Buteogallus anthracinus—Common Black Hawk (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Circus cyaneus—Northern Harrier (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Fulica americana—American Coot (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Gallinula chloropus—Common Moorhen (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Gallinago gallinago—Common Snipe (Rea and Hargrave 1984)

Capella gallinago

Numenius americanus—Long-billed Curlew (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Recurvirostra americana—American Avocet (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Leucophaeus pipixcan—Franklin's Gull (Rea and Hargrave 1984)

Larus pipixcan

Cygnus columbianus—Whistling Swan (Rea and Hargrave 1984: cf.)

Olor columbianus

Zenaida macroura—Mourning Dove (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Megascops kennicottii—Western Screech Owl (Rea and Hargrave 1984)

Otus asio

Falco mexicanus—Prairie Falcon (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Contopus sordidulus—Western Wood Pewee (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Empidonax sp.—Empidonax Flycatchers (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Sayornis nigricans—Black Phoebe (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Sayornis saya—Say's Phoebe (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Lanius excubitor—Great Gray Shrike (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Aphelocoma californica—Western Scrub Jay (Rea and Hargrave 1984: ? gen. et sp.)
Corvus corax—Common Raven (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Pica hudsonica—Black-billed Magpie (Rea and Hargrave 1984)

Pica pica hudsonica

Eremophila alpestris—Horned Lark (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Hirundo rustica—Barn Swallow (Rea and Hargrave 1984: ?)
Catherpes mexicanus—Canyon Wren (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Salpinctes obsoletus—Rock Wren (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Myadestes townsendi—Townsend's Solitaire (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Turdus grayi—Clay-colored Robin (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Turdus migratorius—American Robin (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Sialia currucoides—Mountain Bluebird (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Setophaga coronata—Yellow-rumped Warbler (Rea and Hargrave 1984)

Dendroica coronata

Passerella iliaca—Fox Sparrow (Rea and Hargrave 1984)
Zonotrichia leucophrys—White-crowned Sparrow (Rea and Hargrave 1984: cf.)
Passerina sp.—Bunting (Rea and Hargrave 1984: ?)
Icterus bullockii—Bullock's Oriole (Rea and Hargrave 1984)

Icterus galbula


Otospermophilus variegatus—Rock Squirrel (Olsen and Olsen 1984)

Rock Squirrel (Spermophilus sp. indet.)

Ondatra zibethicus—Common Muskrat (Olsen and Olsen 1984)
Sciurus sp. (Olsen and Olsen 1984)
Castor canadensis—American Beaver (Olsen and Olsen 1984)
Erethizon dorsata—American Porcupine (Olsen and Olsen 1984)
Lepus californicus—Black-tailed Jackrabbit (Olsen and Olsen 1984)
Notiosorex sp.—Notiosorex Shrews (Olsen and Olsen 1984)

Notiosorex cf. N. crawfordi

Myotis sp.—Myotis Bats (Olsen and Olsen 1984)
Puma concolor—Mountain Lion (Olsen and Olsen 1984)
Canis latrans—Coyote (Olsen and Olsen 1984)
Bassariscus astutus—Ringtail (Olsen and Olsen 1984)
Odocoileus hemionus—Mule Deer (Olsen and Olsen 1984)
Ovis canadensis—Bighorn Sheep (Harington 1984)
Bison sp.—Bison (Harington 1984)

Literature. Euler 1984a; Euler 1984b; ; Harington 1984; Mead et al. 2005; Olsen and Olsen 1984; Rea 1980; Rea and Hargrave 1984.


Last Update: 6 Feb 2013