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Age. Late Wisconsin. Three radiocarbon dates are available: 12,280 ± 170 (TX-879) on charcoal, 13,920 ± 210 (TX-880) on wood, and 14,300 ± 220 (TX-881) on wood (Lundelius 1984).
General Description. All data are from Lundelius (1984). The official designation is 41 VV 162 A, and the cave was excavated by archaeologists in the 1970s. The cave measures 30 ft deep by 15 ft wide and is oriented north-south. Plan and sectional views of the site are available in Lundelius (1984).
Discussion. Many elements were burned, and the bone material implies both carnivores and humans were involved in the presence of the skeletal material. Lundelius (1984:461) noted that "The extinct fauna, with two species of horse, an antilocaprid, and Bison, suggests prevalence of open country, grasslands or savannah, on the uplands. The canyons, as now, probably supported brushy vegetation and provided habitats for many non-grassland and savannah species."
Lundelius (1984) discusses the horse material at some length. The Equus francisci material seems relatively uncontroversial (except possibly regarding what name should properly be applied), but identification of the larger horse (identified by Lundelius as Equus cf. scotti) has problems as discussed in the E. niobrarensis account.
The only extant species not now known from the area is Baiomys taylori, occurring farther east in Texas and south in Mexico.
Ammospermophilus interpres—Texas Antelope Squirrel (Lundelius
Perognathus sp.—Pocket Mouse (Lundelius 1984)
Cratogeomys castanops—Yellow-faced Pocket Gopher (Lundelius 1984)
Thomomys bottae—Botta's Pocket Gopher (Lundelius 1984)
Baiomys taylori—Northern Pygmy Mouse (Lundelius 1984)
Onychomys leucogaster—Northern Grasshopper Mouse (Lundelius 1984: cf.)
Neotoma sp.—Wood Rat (Lundelius 1984)
Peromyscus sp.—White-footed Mouse (Lundelius 1984 )
Lepus californicus sp.—Black-tailed Jackrabbit (Lundelius 1984: cf.)
Sylvilagus sp.—Cottontail (Lundelius 1984)
Chiroptera (Lundelius 1984)
Canis sp.—Canid (Lundelius 1984: consistent with C. latrans )
Urocyon cinereoargenteus—Gray Fox (Lundelius 1984)
†Arctodus simus—Giant Short-faced Bear (Lundelius 1984)
Mephitis mephitis—Striped Skunk (Lundelius 1984)
Spilogale sp.—Spotted Skunk (Lundelius 1984)
Bassariscus astutus—Ringtail (Lundelius 1984: cf.)
†Equus francisci—Stilt-legged Onager (Lundelius 1984)
†Equus niobrarensis—Niobrara Horse (Lundelius 1984: Equus cf. scotti)
†Camelops sp.—American Camel (Lundelius 1984: cf.)
†Navahoceros fricki—Mountain Deer (Lundelius 1984)
†Stockoceros conklingi—Conkling's Pronghorn (Lundelius 1984: Stockoceros sp.)
†Bison sp.—Bison (Lundelius 1984)
Literature. Lundelius 1984.
Last Update: 8 May 2009