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Class Mammalia
Order Perissodactyla
Family Equidae


Equidae—Family Equidae // Equidae sp.—Horses // Equus sp. (small)—Small Horse // Equus sp (large)—Large Horse // Equus calobatus—Stilt-legged Onager // Equus conversidens—Mexican Horse // Equus cumminsii—Cummings' Ass // Equus enormis—Enormous Horse // Equus fraternus—Fraternal Horse // Equus giganteus—Giant Horse // Equus occidentalis—Western Horse // Equus pacificus—Pacific Horse // Equus (Plesippus) sp.—American Zebra // Equus (Plesippus) francescana—Francescana Zebra // Equus (Plesippus) simplicidens—American Zebra // Equus Species A—Unidentified Equus // Haringtonhippus francisci—Harington's Stilt-legged Horse

Equidae sp.—HorsesPleistocene regional distribution of Equus sp.

Fossil horse material is relatively easy to identify to family on many elements, but often very difficult to place to species. As a result, much equine material is recorded only as "horse" or "Equus sp." These terms may actually include Haringtonhippus since the relatively recent splitting of Equus into two genera (Weinstock et al. 2005).

The Pleistocene material earlier noted as from Skull Ridge (e.g., Harris 1993c) has been included in the Santa Cruz site, following Morgan and Lucas (2005).


Several areas of the map have far too many localities to be able to show them all.

Pleistocene: Encino Blowouts (Agogino 1972); Floyd (Morgan and Lucas 2005); Fresnal Canyon (Morgan and Lucas 2006); Holtville (Jefferson 2014); Laguna (Morgan and Lucas 2005); Lazy E Ranch (Morgan and Lucas 2005); Moriarty (Morgan and Lucas 2005); Pecos River near Roswell (Morgan and Lucas 2005); Terlingua (Cockerell 1930).

Blancan: Silver Canyon (Morgan et al. 2009)

Late Blancan: Cal Tech (Lindsay 1984); California Wash (Morgan and White 2005); Curtis Ranch (Lindsay 1984); Fite Ranch (Morgan and Harris 2015)); Kelly Canyon (Morgan et al. 2011); Prospect (Johnson et al. 1975); San Simon Fauna (Morgan and White 2005); Snowflake (Lindsay and Tessman 1974).

Late Blancan/Early Irvingtonian: Bosque (Morgan and Harris 2015).

?Irvingtonian/Early Rancholabrean: El Felipe Hills (Jefferson 1991b).

Irvingtonian: El Paso (UTEP).

Early Irvingtonian: Domingo (Morgan and Lucas 2005); Gypsum Ridge (Wagner and Prothero 2001); Inman Gravel Pit (Morgan and Lucas 2005); Kirtland AFB (Morgan and Harris 2015); Rincon Arroyo (Morgan and Lucas 2005); Tijeras Arroyo (Morgan and Lucas 2005).

Latest Irvingtonian: Village Drive (Jefferson 2014).

Late Irvingtonian or Early Rancholabrean (?): Eighteenmile Bend (Morgan and Lucas 2005); Leon (Jefferson 1991b).

Late Irvingtonian/Early Rancholabrean: El Evado (Jefferson 1991b); Thorn, Victorville (Jefferson 1991b).

Irvingtonian/Rancholabrean: Fort Irwin (Jefferson 1991b).

Rancholabrean: Alameda and Workman streets (Workman Storm Drain) (Jefferson 1991b); Alkali Flat (Morgan and Lucas 2005); Amargosa Desert (Jefferson et al. 2015); Anaheim Blvd. and Henry Ford Blvd. (Jefferson 1991b); Arizpe (White et al. 2010); Bachoco (White et al. 2010); Ballona Creek Wash (Jefferson 1991b); Bedford Road (Jefferson 1991b); Bajimari (White et al. 2010); Black Rock (Morgan and Lucas 2005); Boquillas Station (Mead et al. 2005); Bow Willow (Jefferson 2014); Brea Canyon (Jefferson 1991b); Calico Road (Jefferson 1991b); Camarillo, Las Posas Estates (Jefferson 1991b); Carbon Canyon (Jefferson 1991b); Cedros (White et al. 2010); Century City, Los Angeles (Jefferson 1991b); Centennial Parkway, Las Vegas Valley (Jefferson et al. 2015: small and large species); Cerro Colorado (Mead et al. 2005); Cerros Negros (Mead et al. 2005); Charley Day Spring (Lindsay and Tessman 1974); Chatsworth, Plumer, and Farralone avenues (Jefferson 1991b); Chino (Jefferson 1991b: cf. gen.); Chino Hills (Jefferson 2014); Chinobampo (White et al. 2010); Coachella Canal 2 (Jefferson 1991b); Choate Ranch (Mead et al. 2005); Conejo Valley (Jefferson 1991b); Corona, California (Jefferson 1991b); Costa de Hermosillo (White et al. 2010); Crenshaw Blvd. and 236th St., Torrance (Jefferson 1991b); Culver City East (Jefferson 1991b); Cypress and Slauson avenues, Hyde Park (Jefferson 1991b); Danby Lake (Jefferson 1991b); Davidson Brick Quarry, Belvedere (Jefferson 1991b); Davies Tank (Morgan and Lucas 2005); Detention Basin, Upper Las Vegas Wash(Jefferson et al. 2015: small and large species); Dragoon Mountains (Mead et al. 2005); Eagle Crest (Jefferson 2014); Edwards Air Force Base (Jefferson 2014); El Carrizal (White et al. 2010); El Fin del Mundo (Sanchez et al. 2009); Empire South (Mead et al. 2005); (Jefferson et al. 2015); Fenn Site (Mead et al. 2005); Fresnal Canyon (Harris 1993c); Glasell and Fletcher, Orange (Jefferson 1991b); Goldfish Point (Jefferson 1991b); Guadalupita Canyon (Gillette et al. 1985); Harbor Blvd. and First St., San Pedro (Jefferson 1991b); Harbor Freeway and 112-113th streets (Jefferson 1991b); Hermosillo (White et al. 2010); Hicks Canyon (Jefferson 2014); Hill and 12th streets (Jefferson 1991b); Hord Rock Shelter (Smith 1934); Isla Vista (Jefferson 1991b); Jack Rabbit Trail Gravel Pit (Jefferson 1991b); Jalama State Park (Jefferson 1991b); Joseph City (Mead et al. 2005); Jusibampo (White et al. 2010); Keams Canyon (Lindsay and Tessman 1974); Kester Ave., Van Nuys (Jefferson 1991b); Kingston Wash (Jefferson 1991b); Kramer (Jefferson 1991b); La Angostura (White et al. 2010); La Botana (White et al. 2010); Laguna Hills (Jefferson 1991b); Laguna Niguel (Jefferson 1991b); Lake San Agustín (Weber 1994); La Playa (White et al. 2010); La Puercera (White et al. 2010); Las Posas Hills (Jefferson 1991b); Las Vegas Basin 1 (Jefferson et al. 2015); Lewis Site (Mead et al. 2005); Lindsay Ranch (Mead et al. 2005); Llano Prieto (White et al. 2010); Lomita (Jefferson 1991b); Long Canyon (Jefferson 1991b); Los Alamos (Jefferson 1991b); Los Angeles Brick Yard No. 3 (Jefferson 1991b); Los Angeles Harbor Berth No. 128 (Jefferson 1991b); Los Angeles Police Station (Jefferson 1991b); Lynx Creek (Pasenko and Agenbroad 2012); Manchester and Airport boulevards (Jefferson 1991b); Manchester and Vermont boulevards (Jefferson 1991b); Melrose Ave. and La Cienega Blvd. (Jefferson 1991a); Mesa Redonda (Morgan and Lucas 2005); Mescal Cave (Jefferson 1991b); Mobile Oil Refinery, 190th St., Torrance (Jefferson 1991b); Naco (Sonora) (White et al. 2010); National City West (Jefferson 2014); Oso Creek, Mission Viejo (Jefferson 1991b); Moapa (Jefferson et al. 2015); Moorepark (Jefferson 1991b); Morongo Grade (Jefferson 1991b); Mount Signal (Jefferson 1991b); Norelle St. (Jefferson 1991b); Old Spring (Jefferson 1991b); Outfall Sewer, Culver City (Jefferson 1991b); Outfall Sewer North, Section 15, Culver City (Jefferson 1991b); Pacific Ave. and Second St. and Third St., San Pedro (Jefferson 1991b); Pala (Jefferson 1991b); Palomas Creek Cave (Harris 1993c); Pierpoint Bay (Jefferson 1991b); Piute Ponds (Jefferson 2014); Piute Valley (Jefferson 2014); Placitas (Morgan and Lucas 2005); Playa San Bartolo (White et al. 2010); Point Sal (Jefferson 1991b); Quiriego (White et al. 2010); Quitovac (White et al. 2010); Rabbit Springs (Jefferson 1991b: cf.); Rancho Aigame (White et al. 2010); Rosamond Boulevard (Jefferson 2014); Rubidoux (Jefferson 1991b); Sahuaro (White et al. 2010); Saltmarsh (Jefferson 2014); San Clemente (Jefferson 1991b); San Pedro Lumber Yard (Jefferson 1991b); San Pedro, Upper San Pedro (Jefferson 1991b); San Rafael Aqueduct (Mead et al. 2005); Santa Ana (White et al. 2010); Santa Cruz (Morgan and Lucas 2005); Scripps Institute (Jefferson 1991b); Searchlight (Jefferson et al. 2015: E. (Amerhippus)); Seff (Mead et al. 2005); Signal Hill, Long Beach (Jefferson 1991b); Socorro (Morgan and Lucas 2005); Sonoita (Mead et al. 2005); South of Charleston (Lindsay and Tessman 1974); Springerville (McDonald et al. 2004); Surprise Springs (Jefferson 1991b); Sylmar (Jefferson 1991b); Tehachapi (Jefferson 1991b); Térapa (Mead et al. 2006); Thompson Sand Pit (Jefferson 2014); Tooth Cave (DeSaussure 1956); Torrance Recharge Basin, Torrance (Jefferson 1991b); Torrey Pines Beach State Park (Jefferson 1991b); Tucson Brickyard (Mead et al. 2005); Tule Springs 2 (Jefferson et al. 2015); Tule Springs 3 (Jefferson et al. 2015); Tule Springs 4 (Jefferson et al. 2015); Tule Springs 5 (Jefferson et al. 2015); Tule Spring 6 (Jefferson et al. 2015); Tule Springs Stein (Jefferson et al. 2015); Tule Spring Scraper (Jefferson et al. 2015); Tule Springs General (Jefferson et al. 2015); Whipple Gravel (Mead et al. 2005); Whitewater Draw (Mead et al. 2005); Wicks St., Arrow Rock (Jefferson 1991b); Willcox (Mead et al. 2004); Wilshire Blvd. and Bedford (Jefferson 1991b); Wilshire Blvd., 10580 The Wilshire, Los Angeles (Jefferson 1991b); Yeso Creek (Agogino and Stevens 1972).

Rancholabrean/?Early Holocene: Mitchell Caverns (Jefferson 1991b).

Late Pleistocene: Wanis View (Jefferson 2014).

Sangamon: Anaheim Blvd. and Normandy Ave., Harbor City (Jefferson 1991b); Bonito Creek (Jefferson 1991b); Chandler Sand Pit, Rolling Hills Estates (Jefferson 1991b); Costa Mesa Santa Isabel (Jefferson 2014); Gaffey St. Union Oil Refinery, Harbor City (Jefferson 1991b); Kelly Pits (Jefferson 1991b); Naval Fuel Reserve Quarry (Jefferson 1991b); Naval Housing Unit (Jefferson 1991b); Pacific Ave. and Olive St., San Pedro (Jefferson 1991a); Pecho Creek (Jefferson 1991b: ? gen.); San Pedro Lumber Co. (Jefferson 1991b: cf.); U. S. Veterans Hospital, Long Beach (Jefferson 1991b).

Wisconsin: Bluefield, Whittier (Jefferson 1991b); Fullerton (Jefferson 1991b); ; Glen Abbey, Bonita (Majors 1993); Imperial Highway (Jefferson 1991b); La Brea Blvd. and San Vicente St. (Jefferson 1991b); La Mirada numbers II-X, Coyote Creek (Jefferson 1991b); Palos Verdes Hills (Jefferson 1991b: ? Wisconsin); Zuma Creek (Jefferson 1991b).

Early/Early-Mid Wisconsin: Lost Valley (Harris 1993c).

Mid Wisconsin: CC:5:6 (Mead et al. 2003); Canez Wash [age may be incorrect] (Mead et al. 2005); Kartchner Caverns State Park (Carpenter and Mead 2003); Lehner Ranch (mammoth site) (Haynes 2008); Shonto (Agenbroad and Downs 1984).

Mid/Late Wisconsin: Glendale (Jefferson et al. 2015); Rampart Cave (Wilson 1942); Sandblast Cave (Emslie 1988); San Miguel Island (Jefferson 1991b).

Late Wisconsin: Bonfire Shelter (Frank 1968); Conkling Cavern (Conkling 1932); Corn Springs ((Jefferson et al. 2015); Gypsum Cave (Glowiak and Rowland 2003); Hermit's Cave (Harris 1993c); Hord Rock Shelter (Smith 1934); La Mirada (Jefferson 1991b); Lake Otero (UTEP); Lehner Site (mastodon site) (Mead et al. 1979); Lucy Site (Agogino 1972); McCullum Ranch (Morgan and Lucas 2005); Maricopa (Jefferson 1991b); Murray Springs (Hemmings 2007b); Muskox Cave (Logan 1981); Naco (Mead et al. 2005); Pacific City, Huntington Beach (Jefferson 2014); Palo Verde Mesa (Jefferson 2014); Placitas (Morgan and Lucas 2005); Park Place, Irvine (Jefferson 2014); Sheep Camp Shelter (Gillespie 1985); Stanton's Cave (Harington 1984); U-Bar Cave 15-18 ka (Harris 1989); Valley Wells (Springer et al. 2010).

Late Wisconsin/Holocene: Beyond Bison Chamber (Harris 1970a); Deadman Cave (Mead et al. 1984); Pratt Cave (Lundelius 1979).


Agenbroad and Down 1984; Agogino and Stevens 1972; Cockerell 1930; Conkling 1932; DeSaussure 1956; Emslie 1988; Frank 1968; Gillespie 1985; Gillette et al. 1985; Glowiak and Rowland 2003; Harington 1984; Harris 1970a, 1989, 1993c; Harris and Porter 1980; Haynes 2008; Hemmings 2007b; Jefferson 1991b, 2014; Jefferson et al. 2015; Lindsay 1984; Lindsay and Tessman 1984; Logan 1981; Lundelius 1979; McDonald et al. 2004; Majors 1993; Mead et al. 1979; Mead et al. 1984; Mead et al. 2003; Mead et al. 2004; Mead et al. 2005; Mead et al. 2006; Morgan and Harris 2015; Morgan and Lucas 2005; Morgan and White 2005; Morgan et al. 2009; Morgan et al. 2011; Pasenko and Agenbroad 2012; Smith 1934; Sanchez et al. 2009; Springer et al. 2010; Wagner and Prothero 2001; Weinstock et al. 2005; Weber 1994; White et al. 2010; Wilson 1942.


Last Update: 6 July 2018